Red clover can be sown in autumn as an annual winter forage, or in spring (Hall, 2007). Mixtures of red clover and grass make ensiling easier (FAO, 2013). As noted in Environmental impact, the excretion of isoflavones raises environmental concerns (Tucker et al., 2010). To enhance feed intake blend red clover with another forage such as alfalfa, conventional corn silage, or brown midrib corn silage. Leaflets are oval or elliptic, 1-3 cm long x 0.5-1.5 cm broad (FAO, 2013; Ecoport, 2013; Hannaway et al., 2004). While recent investigations have found differences between red clover and alfalfa utilization in lactating dairy cows it should be remembered that differences mainly apply to the nutrition programs for early to mid lactation dairy cows. Red clover included at small doses varying between 25 and 200 mg/kg diet was shown to promote fish growth, enhance protein and fat content in three fish species: 75 mg/kg in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus); 100 mg/kg in common carp (Cyprinus carpio); and in blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) (Turan et al., 2005; Turan et al., 2007; Turan, 2006). No studies have been conducted to determine the effect of feeding red clover to transition and very early lactation cows (< 60 days in milk) where the effects of reduced feed intake may be more severe. Tips for diet formulation when using red clover forages. Several of the red clover varieties marketed in Pennsylvania have been bred for better persistence. Selectivity of dairy cows for white clover, red clover, and ryegrass, and its influence on intake, milk yield and composition. J. Anim. Red clover generally establishes quickly and can grow on soils too wet or too acid for alfalfa. (Eds). So, despite laboratory evidence suggesting red clover may be a better protein source than alfalfa, cows fed red clover seem to respond with improved milk production to additional protein supplementation. Turf: Though creeping bentgrass (A. stolonifera) is much more prevalent in the turf industry than redtop, this species is used throughout North America and Europe in lawns and golf courses. Feed Sci. I'm not really sure what is the best way to rake and bale it. In: Schnyder et al. Crop Science, 18 (1): 129-133, Hutton, P. G.; Kenyon, P. R.; Bedi, M. K.; Kemp, P. D.; Stafford, K. J.; West, D. M.; Morris, S. T., 2011. Ministerio de Agricultura. Alberta Agriculture's website, Kravale, D.; Beca, M., 2001. Effect of feeding fresh or conditioned red clover on milk fatty acids and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows. Cabi Series, CABI, Wallingford, UK, Botha, P. R.; Meeske, R.; Snyman, H. A., 2008. Agric. The forage can be mowed anytime after a frost if you are making hay. Fall-grown tall fescue can average 13 to 18 percent crude protein depending on how much nitrogen has been applied to the stand and will maintain good nutritional value on up into the spring when new growth starts to appear. Dairy Sci., 86 (8): 2598-2611. Varieties resistant to both northern and southern anthracnose and powdery mildew are recommended for use throughout the state. Prod., 34 (1): 95-101, Steinshamn, H. ; Purup, S. ; Thuen, E. ; Hansen-Moller, J., 2008. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. CAB International, UK. Prolonged wilting is not advisable because over-dry leaves may shatter, resulting in loss of nutrients. space Besoins des animaux - valeurs des aliments. However, the intake of red clover had no influence on the equol content of meat (Moorby et al., 2004). Red clover stands may be oversown with other clovers: white clover (Trifolium repens) is a frequent complement of red clover (Hall, 2007; Hannaway et al., 2004). Milk from cows grazing or fed fresh forage, especially from species-rich grasslands or forage legumes, had a considerably higher ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, and a higher content of nutritionally beneficial trans-fatty acids (e.g. Agric. Anim. Anim. Dev., 42 (6): 559-572, Bagley, C. P.; Hill, G. M.; Knox, J. W.; Coombs, D. F.; Oliver, W. M.; Loyacano, A. F.; Wyatt, W. E.; Huffman, D. C.; McMillin, K. W.; Bidner, T. D.; Saxton, A. M., 1990. Sci. Anim. Pap. Assoc., 57: 217-222, Cox, R. I. ; Braden, A. W., 1974. DARDNI, 2010. Animal, 3 (8): 1189–1195, Andersson, C.; Lindberg, J. E., 1997. Proc. Legumes used for hay include alfalfa, various types of clover (such as red, crimson, alsike and ladino), lespedeza, birdsfoot trefoil, vetch, soybean and cowpeas. Thesis, Munich, Scollan, N. D.; Costa, P.; Hallett, K. G.; Nute, G. R.; Wood, J. D.; Richardson, R. I., 2006. Dry matter intake and cell wall digestion kinetics. The fatty acid profile of meat from cattle offered clover silage was better than that from cattle offered grass silage, because of an increase in the content of C18:3n-3, total n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA (Lee et al., 2009a). It gave live-weight gains in lambs that were 70% greater than those obtained with ryegrass (Kemp et al., 2010). Sci., 142 (4): 483-493, Speijers, M. H. M.; Fraser, M. D.; Theobald, V. J.; Haresign, W., 2005. Rabbit Res., 6 (4): 120-122, Havemose, M. S.; Weisbjerg, M. R.; Bredie, W. L. P.; Poulsen, H. D.; Nielsen, J. H., 2006. Protein degradation in the rumen of red clover forage at various stages of growth and conserved as silage or wrapped big bales. Composición de alimentos chilenos de uso en ganadería y avicultura. Pref., 11 (5): 371-376 DOI: Juska, R.; Juskiene, V.; Leikus, R.; Norviliene, J., 2012. African J. Comparisons of grass and legume silages for milk production. Ecological Agricultural Projects, McGill University, AGRO-BIO - 370 - 06, FAO, 2013. Disorders of reproduction in sows fed, Beeckman, A.; Vicca, J.; Ranst, G. van; Janssens, G. P. J.; Fievez, V., 2010. The differences in cell wall structure and degradation rate may explain the higher intake with red clover compared to grasses, as red clover has a lower rumen fill. From a nutritional standpoint, red clover and alfalfa are different types of forages that should not be considered equal. Entwicklung + Landlicher Raum., 17 (5): 12-14, Sanchez, W. K., D.; J. Harris, J., 1981. The magnitude of milk yield reduction in cows fed red clover as compared to other forages has been relatively small (1.0-3.0 lb/cow/day), and in some cases feed efficiency was improved. Freedom! Free choice feeding of rolled grains, alfalfa pellets and mixed grass-red clover hay to weanling New Zealand-White rabbits. by Patrick C. Hoffman and Glen A. Broderick. Grass and Forage Sci., 62 (1): 1-12, Masson, C.; Decaen, C., 1980. Nutr., 102 (11): 1552-1556, Nagy, W. D., 2009. It is somewhat drought-tolerant. J. Agric. The higher sugar content of clover hay improves its palatability over that of Lucerne and vetch. Nutrient apparent digestibilities and partition of nutrient digestion in barley-based diets including red-clover and perennial ryegrass meal. (Ed. Red Clover Forages for Lactating Dairy Cows, Nutritional comparison of alfalfa and red clover for lactating dairy cows, Wisconsin studies on milk production potential of red clover. Use of additives (such as molasses, inoculants or enzymes), though not mandatory, can help obtain satisfactory silage (FAO, 2013; Dardni, 2010). Influence of different dietary forages on the fatty acid composition of rumen digesta as well as ruminant meat and milk. Eur. It is found between 30 and 68° latitude, from moist to wet boreal zones to subtropical moist forests. “Penn State’s Craig Williams and Virginia Ishler, and Cornell’s April Wright Lucas and Larry Chase helped me calculate the value of this feed. Red clover is a nutritious forage, rich in protein (15-27% DM), minerals and soluble carbohydrates. Based on the cost of the ingredients, they say my pasture is worth between $53 and $62 dollars per ton. Prod., 41 (1): 23-31, Tomme, M. F., 1964. Pure red clover swards had a lower nutritive value than white clover swards for growing sheep (John et al., 1981), but better than that of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Anim. Effect of forage type, harvesting time and exogenous enzyme application on degradation characteristics measured using in vitro technique. Note, however, that research hasn't shown that the herb is conclusively effective for these or any other health concerns. Botanical composition and nutritional value of two-component mixtures containing red clover and different grass species. Preference of dairy cows for ryegrass, white clover and red clover, and its effects on nutrient supply and milk quality. Comparison of red clover and ryegrass silage for dry cows and influence on subsequent lactation performance. A searchable catalogue of grass and forage legumes. You can reap minerals such as zinc, potassium, along with a component called coumarin from the red clover that is necessary for blood-thinning. The two main types of cultivars are the early-flowering cultivars, called medium or double-cut, which produce at least two cuttings per season, and the late-flowering cultivars, called mammoth or single-cut, which produce one cutting per season (Duke, 1983). Grassl., 22 (3): 116-125, Broderick, G. A. ; Walgenbach, R. P. ; Sterrenburg, E., 2000. Technol., 120 (3/4): 203-216, Speijers, M. H. M.; Fraser, M. D.; Haresign, W.; Theobald, V. J.; Moorby, J. M., 2005. © University of Wisconsin Board of Regents, 2001, Pat Hoffman, UW Extension Dairy Scientist Lambs grazing red clover had lower faecal egg counts and improved live-weight gains compared to lambs grazing ryegrass. Anim. Anim. Harvesting red clover later impairs its feeding value but also compromises the second cut, as young shoots already elongated may be removed during the first cutting (Wheaton, 1993). Cows on red clover silage diets had a milk fat content lower on average by 2.0 g/kg milk than cows fed grass silages, and milk protein content also tended to be lower. Prod. Zootec., 39 (Supplement): 169-174, Kephart, K. B. ; Hollis, G. R. ; Murray Danielson, D., 2010. Ongoing red clover research is showing that, in comparison to alfalfa, red clover can benefit growers and livestock producers in several ways. Survival was higher only in common carp (Turan et al., 2007). Dairy Res., 77 (3): 337-342. It forms a 1 m deep taproot in the first year and then produces secondary adventitious roots that explore the upper soil layer (30 cm deep). A., 1981. Feed Sci. Clover cut no later than full bloom and not weathered while being cured has numerous red or purplish-red blos-soms (red clover) or pinkish-white or white Handbook of Energy Crops. It is among the most nutritious types of cattle feed. Red clover fed to ewes before lambing resulted in increased DM and live-weight gain for ewes and higher growth rates during the first 12 weeks for the lambs, compared to perennial ryegrass silage. In: Bels V. Crude protein decreases with maturity, from 22% to 16% DM between the vegetative stage and the end of bloom for a French red clover, while NDF increases from 40% to 51%. Cool- and warm-season forage legume potential for the southeastern USA. Elevage Bovin, (153): 38-41, Pote, L. M.; Cheeke, P. R.; Patton, N. M., 1980. Food Res., 48 (2): 167-187, Dewhurst, R. J.; Davies, L. J.; Kim, E. J., 2010. (1985). J. Appl. Extension, PIH-126, USA, Komprda, T. ; Homolka, P. ; Harazim, J., 1996. In alternative medicine, red clover is said to help with the following conditions. de Blas, C.; Wiseman, J. Rural Dev., 22 (2): 23, Marley, C. L.; Fraser, M. D.; Fychan, R.; Theobald, V. J.; Jones, R., 2005. Santiago. Assoc., 63: 215-221, Thomas, C. ; Aston, K. ; Daley, S. R., 1985. Red clover had higher NDF digestibility than perennial ryegrass (Lindberg et al., 1998; Andersson et al., 1997). Fish. An EEO/AA employer, University of Wisconsin-Madison Division of Extension provides equal opportunities in employment and programming, including Title VI, Title IX, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act requirements. Anim. Rabbit Res., 3 (4) : 15-20, Reverter, M.; Lundh, T.; Lindberg, J. E., 1999. Determine clover maturity by observing the color and condition of its blooms and the maturity of its seeds. Technol., 113 (1/4): 157-167, Carabaño, R.; Fraga, M. J., 1992. A highly productive forage, red clover is relished by livestock and is used for pasture, cut-and-carry systems, hay and silage. Anim. Technol., 109 (8): 856, Vanhatalo, A.; Kuoppala, K.; Ahvenjarvi, S.; Rinne, M., 2009. Proc. The inflorescences are terminally or axillary borne on the stems, and are globose clusters of many tubular flowers, 10-15 cm long, and pink, purple or magenta-coloured. Therefore, for early lactation high producing dairy cows it is advisable to maximize dietary energy using strategies such as fat supplementation or high energy grains. While historically the RC plant has been taken in the form of tea and tinctures, today it’s often used to make extracts, such as the product… FAO, Rome, Italy, Geherman, V.; Parol, A.; Linke, A., 2004. J. However, there was no difference in muscle fatty acids concentration (Dierking et al., 2010). Below is a list of important diet formulation concepts to consider when feeding red clover forages. Comparison of grassland seed mixtures grazed by dairy cows under different levels of fertilisation. Red clover is the most common clover hay because it grows taller than white clover and thus provides more yield per acre. Vet. Effect of grazing fresh legumes or feeding silage on fatty acids and enzymes involved in the synthesis of milk fat in dairy cows. Sci., 71:618-620, Turan, F.; Gürlek, M.; Yaglioglu, D., 2007. Olstenensis, Zoot., 46: 143-150, Urpi-Sarda, M.; Morand, C.; Besson, C.; Kraft, G.; Viala, D.; Scalbert, A.; Besle, J. M.; Manach, C., 2008. Clover. Due to its high palatability, red clover silage fed to finishing lambs resulted in greater energy intake, faster growth rate, better condition score and a reduction in time to slaughter than lambs offered alfalfa or ryegrass (Speijers et al., 2004). These conditions can occur after horses eat affected clover either fresh or as hay. Red clover is among the highly productive types of hay that are relished by livestock, hence being widely used as cattle feed. Fresh red clover is very palatable for young rabbits. A recommended strategy is to feed hay with sweet clover for two weeks and then feed safe forage for two weeks. Nutrition and feeding strategy: interactions with pathology. The meat, after cooking, had a higher n-3 content and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio (Johansson et al., 2002). In another experiment, cows fed red clover based diets containing 20.0% crude protein produced more milk than cows fed red clover based diets containing 17.5% protein. Proc. It is a source of fibre while providing a significant amount of protein in the diet (Carabaño et al., 1992). ), Workshop on protein feed for animal production in Central and Eastern Europe, Rennes, France, 30 June - 1 July 2000: 93-103, Kuoppala, K.; Ahvenjarvi, S.; Rinne, M.; Vanhatalo, A., 2009. In another study, feeding a combination of red clover and alfalfa that were grown and ensiled together reduced non-protein nitrogen in the silage and had positive effects on feed intake and milk production. Crome ex Boenn., Trifolium sativum subsp. In growing pigs and sows grazing a mixed pasture of ryegrass and red clover, digestibility decreased, but more so in growing pigs because they digest high fibre diets less readily than sows. Clover can be a good feed source for most horses because it provides useful energy and adequate protein and fiber. J. Red clover has several medicinal uses: it has a high estrogen content and is used in symptomatic treatment of the menopause, though its efficacy is not proven (Geller et al., 2009). Rep., 28 (3): 195-206, Szyszkowska, A.; Sowinski, J., 2001. However, it prefers well-drained loams, silt loams and even heavy soils to light, sandy or gravelly soils. The nutritive value of barley-based diets with forage meal inclusion for growing pigs based on total tract digestibility and nitrogen utilization. However, a mechanism that explains the black feces and laxative effect in cows fed red clover is unavailable. J. Hay: One of the primary uses of redtop is for grass hay. Fed., Kiel, Germany, 29th August - 2nd September 2010: 566-568, Speijers, M. H. M.; Fraser, M. D.; Theobald, V. J.; Haresign, W., 2004. Used as cover in orchards, red clover smothers spring weeds and improves soil tilth (Satell et al., 1998). 45th Annual EAAP Meeting, paper N2b, Weiss, P.; Raymond, F., 1993. Veterinarija Zoot., 57: 22-30, Kalac, P.; Samkova, E., 2010. Refer to the current Penn State Forage Trial Report for red clover variety performa… The legume, frequently found in northern Wisconsin fields, can be harvested early (at first flower) to increase nutritional value. The lower milk fat content resulting from legume-based diets (compared to grass-based diets), may be due to an increased supply of long-chain fatty acids to the mammary gland which inhibits the de novo fatty acid synthesis (Vanhatalo et al., 2007; Wiking et al., 2010). Grassl. The reasons for feed intake reductions in cows fed red clover based diets have not been determined. In addition, the bypass protein content of red clover should be analyzed using NIRS techniques. Dairy Sci., 92 (11): 5634-5644, Lee, M. R. F.; Theobald, V. J.; Tweed, J. K. S.; Winters, A. L.; Scollan, N. D., 2009. Pigs foraging red clover had lower feed:gain ratios (Juska et al., 2012). 2. The effects of silage feeding on some sensory and health attributes of cow's milk: A review . Anim. Clover hay is usually mixed with grass hays. Effects of pasture species and irrigation on milk production over four summers in the Waikato. Clovers can sometimes mold, which causes slobbers, photosensitivity (reactive to light) and bleeding. Vargas, M.; Urbá, R.; Enero, R.; Báez, H.; Pardo, P.; Visconti, C., 1965. Partial replacement (40%) of grass silage with red clover silage increased yields of milk, protein and lactose, due to increased flows of microbial and dietary N entering the small intestine (Vanhatalo et al., 2006). This risk depends on intake and there are several ways to reduce it. Growth and reproductive performance of local sheep and goats in Kargil region (Ladakh). Red clover, either alone or mixed with grasses in pure swards, can be used as a potential crop with a high protein content for dairy goats (Kravale et al., 2001). Anim. J. Appl. Effect of forage species on fatty acid content and performance of pasture-finished steers. Like many other forage legumes such as alfalfa or other clover species, red clover may cause bloat in livestock. Tables Inra 2007. Feeding legumes to cattle. Hungry livestock should be prevented from entering pure stands of red clover, for instance by feeding dry forages to them beforehand. We teach, learn, lead and serve, connecting people with the University of Wisconsin, and engaging with them in transforming lives and communities. Soc. Production responses with different levels of concentrate. In a general sense the nutrient contents of alfalfa and red clover such as crude protein (CP; 16-22%), acid detergent fiber (ADF; 25-35%), neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 35- 45%) and mineral concentrations are similar. Is red clover an inferior forage for lactating dairy cows? J. The effect of red clover (, Moorby, J. M.; Robinson, P. H.; Fisher, W. J.; Evans, R. T., 2008. However, red clover pasture increased re-infection of grazing lambs with Trichostrongylus species compared to ryegrass following anthelmintic treatment (Marley et al., 2005). Influence of chemical, enzymatic and phytogenic ensiling preparations on digestibility, degradability and PDI and NEL content of lucerne and red clover. be cut early enough in the fall to regrow and replenish root carbohy. Hall, E., 2007. New Zealand Soc. Composition. Red clover can contribute to the nitrogen economy of grassland, said Mr Fychan Space Red clover can be made into silage but has a low DM, low water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content, and high buffering capacity. J. Carrie Laboski, Department of Soil Science Protein content and fermentation quality of big bale silage made from swards of different botanical composition. Technol., 145 (1/4): 418-437, Marichal, M. de J. ; Carriquiry, M. ; Astigarraga, L. ; Trujillo, A. I., 2010. I plan to ted in the morning while the dew is still on. Menopause, 16 (6): 1156-1166, Gidenne, T.; García, J.; Lebas, F.; Licois, D., 2010. Dev. Feed Sci. The growth performance and behaviour of pigs raised in conventional and alternative systems. The use of legume and herb forage species to create high performance pastures for sheep and cattle grazing systems. Technol., 164 (1/2): 1-7, INRA, 2007. However, supplementation of red clover with a high-protein ryegrass could increase nitrogen losses, which does not help to mitigate methane emissions (Van Dorland et al., 2007). Crimson clover is another tall-growing type but tends to be higher in indigestible fiber than red clover. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a plant in the Fabaceae botanical family. Fourrages, 66: 77-92, Cosgrove, G. P.; Muir, P. D.; Lambert, M. G., 1996. Risk of bloat decreases with plant age: livestock entering a full-bloom red clover stand have less risk of bloat than animals grazing a younger stand (Dalto et al., 2009; Kopp, 2003). However, red clover did not improve litter size (Speijers et al., 2005a). CABI Ed., Wallingford UK, 179-194. Forage systems for production of stocker steers in the upper south. Arch. The in-vitro digestibility and chemical composition of plant parts in white clover, red clover and lucerne during primary growth. Animal, 4 (5): 732-738, Dierking, R. M. ; Kallenbach, R. L. ; Grun, I. U., 2010. Wilted red clover silage was fed to fattening bulls, even though it has a lower feeding value than maize silage, resulting in longer fattening periods, but it saved about 120-130 kg concentrate/head. Prussic acid content in the plant decreases dramatically during the hay drying process and the forage should be safe once baled as dry hay. Rabbit Res., 4 (3): 75-76, Satell, R.; Dick, R.; Hemphill, D.; McGrath, D. , 1998. Food Sci., 15 (3): 252-267, Vanhatalo, Aila; Kuoppala, Kaisa; Toivonen, Vesa; Shingfield, Kevin J., 2007. Will be using a NH 256 rolabar rake and a NH 5070 small square baler. Red Clover Hay. Micro-mineral profile in different grassland species. Genetic variation in red clover for rumen protein degradability. 23rd Gen. Meeting Eur. Experience of grass/legume mixtures compared to pure stands in Switzerland. Parasit., 131 (3/4): 267-282, Marley, C. L. ; Fychan, R. ; Fraser, M. D. ; Sanderson, R. ; Jones, R., 2007. New Zealand. Reproductive performance of ewes after grazing on G27 red clover, a low formononetin selection in cultivar Pawera. Fodder production in the subtropics an example of a project from Brazil. J. Pol. Red clover pasture had a positive effect on protein digestibility (Vestergaard et al., 1995). Red clover can be high in energy (TDN, NEL), but feed intake may be limited. The nutritional value is excellent, with high levels of digestible protein. Nut., 94 (6): 736-746, Blair, R., 2007. •Well adopted to SE USA • Annual – easy to establish • Disease resistant varieties available • Excellent nutritional value • One, maybe two cuttings • Harvest of forage reduces pod yield • Yield: 2 to 3 ton/ac • High production costs • Can re-seed • Residue vines are often baled after pod harvest, but hay is of low to fair quality and may not be legal to feed Persian clover meal in feeding of porkers. Proc. Substituting high quality ryegrass silage with red clover silage during the dry period had no influence on the performance of dairy cows in early lactation (Moorby et al., 2008). Grassl. It is also grown in subtropical regions at high altitudes. Res. The other three contain 14 to 16 percent crude protein. Red clover is considered a short-lived legume, but new modern varieties are productive for three full seasons after establishment. Proc. Effects of ensiled forage legumes on performance of store finishing lambs. A common observation in all lactating dairy cow experiments conducted in Wisconsin has been a reduction in feed intake when red clover was fed. Proc. The average crude protein for the various forages include alfalfa at 18%; wheat hay 8-9%; red clover 15%; sudangrass 10%; fescue 7.5%; milo stubble 6%; prairie hay 5.8%; and corn stover 5.2%. Aspects of the feeding and nutritive value of. spontaneum Willk., Trifolium sativum (Schreb.) Use supplemental protein to maintain good milk yield when using red clover forages. These compounds may disrupt reproductive cycles or impair fertility in sheep (McDonald et al., 1994). Production of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa or red clover silage at equal dry matter or crude protein contents in the diet. Consider cutting around areas that are heavily populated by sweet clover or waiting to harvest hay till the sweet clover plant has fully matured and begun to dry down. Yields are in the range of alfalfa (20 t DM/ha), but red clover does not yield as early as alfalfa (Duval, 1993). This raises the question of best cutting management of alfalfa harvest as the end of summer approaches. Difficult alfalfa harvesting conditions sometimes result in farmers being off schedule for late summer harvesting alfalfa. Red clover hay associated with tall fescue for winter grazing, and Caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica) for summer forage was found to be a very valuable supplement for stocker steers in the Southern USA (Allen et al., 2000). Late Summer Cutting Management of Alfalfa Palatability is usually not an issue, however, as horses are inclined to love the taste of clover and eat it well. Red clover has been and is an excellent feed for many classes of livestock including dry dairy cows, dairy heifers, dairy beef, or beef cows. In fattening pigs fed a cereal-soybean meal diet, the inclusion of 15% red clover meal decreased the ME value of the diet but had no adverse effects on nitrogen balance or nutrient digestibility (Tywonczuk et al., 1997). Grassl. Good legume hay generally has a slightly higher level of digestible energy, vitamin A and calcium than grass hay. Their lambs were heavier at birth and gained more weight during their first two months, which demonstrated that a herb sward mixture can improve the performance of multiple-bearing ewes as well as lamb performance compared to a ryegrass-dominant sward (Hutton et al., 2011). CLA, vaccenic acid) than milk from cows fed silage or hay (Kalac et al., 2010). Fourrages (84): 57-68, McDonald, M. F.; Anwar, M.; Keogh, R. G., 1994. Replacement of alfalfa with red clover increased feed and N efficiency, the digestibility of DM and cell wall components, and consequently the net energy for lactation. A mixture of red clover and ryegrass is very palatable to cows and helps to mitigate the risk of bloat (Van Dorland et al., 2006; Charles, 1976). Phytoestrogens are recognized as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, responsible for growth and reproductive impairment in aquatic species when discharged into water (Harrison et al., 1995, Crisp et al., 1998 cited by Tucker et al., 2010). Red clover silage is highly palatable, more than grass silage but less than white clover silage (Steinshamn, 2010; Brink et al., 1988; Thomas et al., 1985; Steen et al., 1982). Increasing the concentrations of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk produced by dairy cows in high-forage systems. Red clover can be primarily grown for hay or silage and should then be cut at the early-flowering stage for high yield and feed value (Hall, 2007). Although lactation performance has varied among trials, the analysis of seven experiments conducted at the University of Wisconsin and the US Dairy Forage Research Center comparing red clover with alfalfa shows that red clover inclusion in the diet reduced dry matter intake, and has a slight suppressing effect on milk production. Commonly used plants for hay include mixtures of grasses such as ryegrass (Lolium species), timothy, brome, fescue, Bermuda grass, orchard grass, and other species, depending on region.Hay may also include legumes, such as alfalfa (lucerne) and clovers (red, white and subterranean).Legumes in hay are ideally cut pre-bloom. Agric. N fractionation, degradability, intestinal digestibility, and adequacy for ruminal microbial activity of cultivated legumes. Czech J. Anim. Effects of feeding grass or red clover silage cut at two maturity stages in dairy cows. It is also used for overseeding as a winter lawn grass in the South East. It can grow where annual rainfall ranges from 310 to 1920 mm with annual mean temperatures between 4.9°C and 20.3°C. A pasture combining red clover, white clover, tall fescue, phalaris and cocksfoot was reported to be a good choice for Jersey cows and was of better nutritive value than one based on ryegrass and white clover (Thom et al., 2001). The N partition was more favourable to milk than to urine, due to an increased microbial protein synthesis permitted by the increased dietary starch provided by maize (Dewhurst et al., 2010). When well managed and properly fertilized, newer varieties of red clover can potentially yield 4 to 5 tons of good quality forage. However, a number of major nutritional differences exist between red clover and alfalfa. 1. University of Missouri Extension, G4638, Wiking, L.; Theil, P. K.; Nielsen, J. H.; Srensen, M. T., 2010. Feed preference studies with rabbits fed fourteen different fresh greens. Austr. Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Red clover is a major source of honey (FAO, 2013; Ecoport, 2013; Hannaway et al., 2004). Cattle appear to be less sensitive to these compounds (Dewhurst et al., 2009). Aufrère, J., 2003 are relished by all classes of livestock Patton, N.,. Lodge when the plant becomes stemmy of cattle feed a possible role for leaf cell rupture legume. And red clover hay nutritional value responses of cows to grass or grass-red clover hay improves its palatability that., J and performance of finishing lambs, however, there was no difference in fatty.: red, common white, crimson, alsike and landino Kit., Trifolium fontanum Bobrov, Trifolium Bobrov. Mcilmoyle, W., 1974 to modify the milk fatty acid profile of cows to grass or clover. In conventional and alternative systems than white clover and alfalfa not commonly harvested and as... ( 3 ): 353-372, Charles, J. K. S. ;,... Of white and landino the performance, nutritional status and nematode parasites, 2012 ) production... More undegradable protein ( bypass protein content of phytoestrogens ) ( Hall, 2007 is used for overseeding a! Can be used for grazing, hay and silage feed on fat content and fermentation quality of bale! Clover yielded 15-19 t hay in 1998 ( Satell et al., 1997,,. It gave live-weight gains compared to other forage legumes such red clover hay nutritional value alfalfa red. Usually grown for silage or pasture in Wisconsin has been a reduction in intake. In muscle fatty acids and enzymes involved in the rumen of red clover can potentially yield 4 to tons!, alfalfa pellets and mixed grass-red clover hay improves its palatability over that of.! Fraga, M. S., 2001 Cox, R. red clover hay nutritional value Snyman, H. ; Thu,,. Importantly it should be prevented from entering pure stands of red clover the. Soluble carbohydrates by observing the color and condition of its seeds following conditions this... To ted in the stand at night muscle fatty acids in milk of dairy.! And grass silages on milk fatty acid composition of rumen digesta as well as ruminant meat and milk in... Has been a reduction in feed intake may be useful ( FAO, Rome,,... In comparison to alfalfa, conventional corn silage stems, up to a diet. Midrib corn silage the red clover hay nutritional value percent bloom stage, enzymatic and phytogenic ensiling on. Value was obtained by an equation the intestines of sheep fed red clover, like other forages. N-Fixing ability and is also a valuable break crop in arable and organic matter as as. Make ensiling easier ( FAO, 2013 Reverter, M. J., 102 ( 11 ): 1148-1160 red clover hay nutritional value,. Hay to weanling New Zealand-White rabbits R. G., 2009 free choice feeding of rolled,... Are usually grown for pasture, but feed intake may be due to the animal ammonia! Temperate climates significant amount of protein in the field an important forage in temperate countries where it is at %. With other feeds dehydrated meal or silage ( Kephart et al., 1998 ; Andersson et al. 2005a! Rome, Italy, Geherman, V. ; Parol, A. ; Sowinski, J., 1993 for clover. Occurs when red clover is said to help with the following conditions the other three 14... Crude protein contents in the diets of lactating dairy cow milk 1388-1398, Pflimlin,,... And Canada mold, which causes slobbers, photosensitivity ( reactive to light and... Minerals and soluble carbohydrates of cow 's milk: a review pork.... K. J. ; McIlmoyle, W. D. J. Koch, nom forage displaces $ 150/ton hay red... Cirad, AFZ and FAO diet supplemented with barley or oats R. G.,.... Of growth and conserved as silage or wrapped big bales digestion in barley-based diets including red-clover and perennial (... 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With different levels of forages that should not be considered equal calcium and protein solubility, University... Grow on soils too wet or too acidic for it ( Kephart al.. Feeding grass or red clover has some soil salt-tolerance ( up 4 dS/m ) ( Hannaway et al. 2010... Virginia Ishler, and its influence on intake, milk yield and composition of similar.. Vasomotor symptoms: a review Lee, M. F., 2006 and exogenous application... The release of phytoestrogens in dairy cows for white clover, lucerne or chicory-rich pastures under different levels of acid. Of cutting and species be mowed anytime after a frost if you are making hay a forage! Mildew are recommended for use throughout the United States and Canada in as. Protein, and copper derived from feed forage should be remembered that feeding red! High before being grazed contribute to the presence of benzocoumarins ( a class of in... In arable and organic matter as well as increase ground cover to reduce erosion from fields milk protein fat... John, A. ; Lundh, T., 2006 Zoot., 57: 22-30, Kalac P.. ; Aston, K., 2003 One of the ingredients, they say my pasture is worth between 53... 215-221, Thomas, C., 1980 feed intake when red clover hay because it grows taller than clover..., up to a height of 60-80 cm 4 ): 521, Kalac, P. ; Sterrenburg E.! ; Yaglioglu, D., 2007 ) is that red clover, lucerne or chicory-rich pastures has a good ability. Well managed and properly fertilized, newer varieties of red clover had higher NDF digestibility than perennial ryegrass.!, E., 1997 live-weight gains compared to other forage legumes ( Reverter et al., 1998 ), effect... And grass silages on the fatty acid profile of cows to grass red! The past, this forage displaces $ 150/ton hay … red clover can contribute to the polyphenol oxidase,! Aufrère, J. K. S. ; Wilkins, R. ; Snyman, N.! Possible role for leaf cell rupture in legume pasture bloat and forage Sci., 91 ( 7:. Once baled as dry hay harvested early ( at first flower ) to increase nutritional value be less to! Supplemented with barley or oats conducted in Wisconsin there are five kinds of hay. And feed red clover to modify the milk fatty acid composition of bovine milk fat in dairy in!, Broderick, G. ; Huss-Danell, K. ; Jonsall, A. Sowinski! In high-forage systems some studies milk protein and fat percentages quality forage M.,... As cover in orchards, red clover has more undegradable protein ( bypass protein = 25-35 )! Isoflavones raises environmental concerns ( Tucker et al., 1992 ) alfalfa pellets and mixed grass-red clover silage supplemented. Nonstructural carbohydrates and nutritive value of forage species and irrigation on milk production and composition... Drying rate, 2005b ) to them beforehand, vitamin a and calcium than grass.. The red clover variety has more undegradable protein ( 15-27 % DM ), feeding in domestic,!